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The Enteric Nervous System

2: Constituent neurons of the enteric nervous system, 29. Shapes of ... Patterns of small intestine motility and their intrinsic neural control, 147 ... Because of its size, complexity, and certain structural similarities, it has been likened to a second brain. Although the enteric nervous system was discovered almost 150 years.


Regional differentiation of the axon: A review with special reference

INTRODUCTION. Our understanding of the nervous system rests in large part upon our concepts of the structure of its constituent neurons. This paper is about one component of the neuron, the axon. The axon has been described as the elongated and usually branched process which conducts impulses away from the  ...


Intrinsic Electrical Properties of Nerve Cells and Their Role in

For almost a century now, it has been agreed that the functional properties of the nervous system are the result of interactions among its constituent neuronal elements. Fundamental to this perspective has been the realization that nerve cells are truly individual anatomi- cal elements. Indeed, although brilliant turn-of- the-.


What Do GABA Neurons Really Do? They Make Possible Variability

principles of function in the nervous system as a whole or in its constituent parts must be the coupling of variability generation to functional demand. ROLES OF GABA NEURONS. Paradoxical as it may seem initially, facile traverse of the adaptive func- tional range in the nervous system largely is made possible by diverse ...


A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity

Because of the “all-or-none” character of nervous activity, neural events and the relations among them can be treated by means of ... The nervous system is a net of neurons, each having a soma and an axon. Their adjunctions, or ..... Then S, is a TPE and only ifit isfalse when its constituent p(zl - zz) are all assumed false-i.e..


Review Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Deficiency in a Ubiquitous

tions in a single gene, the Survival of Motor Neuron 1. (SMN1) gene. Recent ... nervous system and its constituent cell types. Explaining ... motor neurons. One of SMN's functions is essential to cell survival. These characteristics, coupled with a rela- tively simple Mendelian inheritance pattern, make a com- pelling case that ...


The Enteric Nervous System

adequate to determine the intrinsic circuitry of the enteric nervous system and the properties of its constituent neurons. In the last 20–30 years, new tech- niques, and excellent application of such techniques, have provided a wealth of information on the structural complexity, neuron types, and connectivity of the enteric ...



nervous system and with chemical changes asso- ciated with nervous function. In view of this interest, it is important for neurobiologists to have a clear idea of how the nucleus is organized: what are the characteristics of its constituent neurons, what is the relationship between the neurons and the supportive neuroglial cells,  ...


Full Text (PDF)

Jul 23, 2002 ... The nervous system is able to exert its function because of the intricate wiring of its constituent parts, billions of neurons, which in the course of neural development form synaptic con- nections thus specifying functional circuits. From there it follows that in the complex mammalian brain an understanding of.


the role of transcription factors in axon guidance

The normal function of the nervous system requires that the constituent neurons are precisely 'wired together'. During embryogenesis, each neuron extends an axonal process, which can navigate a considerable distance to its target. Although a number of the receptors and guidance signals that direct axonal growth have ...


Selected Comparison of Immune and Nervous System Development

The primary constituents of the mature nervous system are neurons and glia. In addition, there are a large number ... Related to their morphological differences, neurons also have distinct anatom- ical connectivities ... this comparison, the mature effector cells of the nervous system—neurons—are really very different from T ...

Chun Adv Immun 2001.pdf

Extraction of Sensory Parameters from a Neural Map by Primary

In most sensory systems, neurons form a map of sensory space ... and encoded by higher levels of the nervous system, the functional architecture of the constituent neurons must be determined. This is an exceedingly difficult task in most sensory systems. ... the CNS according to their directional tuning properties (Bacon.


A systems theoretic approach to the study of CNS function

study central nervous system function. Neuronal systems are conceptualized as con- sisting of different populations of neurons, each of which may be treated as a unit with its own dynamic properties. These dynamic properties of each population are determined by fundamental characteristics of its constituent neurons.


pyruvate participation in the low molecular weight trophic activity for

Conditioned media from glial cell cultures contain low molecular weight agents which can support survival of CNS neurons in the absence of recognized protein neuronotrophic factors. A similar support is provided to. CNS neurons by selected basal media, and pyruvate is the critical medium constituent responsible for their.


CHAPTER 2 Cells of the Nervous System

ron to another, typically conducts impulses away from the cell body. Some neurons have no axons, and their dendrites conduct signals in both directions. Axons of efferent neurons in the spinal cord and brain are included in spinal and cranial nerves. They end on striated muscle fibers or on nerve cells of autonomic ganglia.


Fractals in the Nervous System: conceptual implications for

prevalence of fractals at all levels of the nervous system, giving credence to the notion of their ... 2.2.2 Point process analysis in peripheral nerves and neurons ...... and the brain's state of criticality resulting from the complexity of nonlinear dynamic interactions among its constituents. Advances in network theory (Albert and ...


At what time scale does the nervous system operate?

Its key feature is the introduction of a null hypothesis that assumes a ... accounted for by assuming fine temporal structure in the constituent neurons' spike trains. The method was also applied to higher-order patterns. cO 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Time scale; Nervous system. 1. Introduction.

Hatsopoulos, Geman et al[1]._Neurocomputing (2003).pdf

Structure of the Nervous System

The most fundamental way of categorizing groups of neurons that make up the central nervous system is as nuclei and tracts. (Figure 2 illustrates the difference between nuclei and tracts). The nuclei are collections of cell bodies and tracts are pathways consisting of large groups of axons. Due to their myelin the axons often  ...


Variability, compensation, and modulation in neurons and circuits

Sep 13, 2011 ... derstand how the function of a cell, a circuit, or a brain depends on the properties of its constituent processes, we confront two issues: (i) all our data come with associated measurement error. (often difficult to assess), and (ii) there is considerable natural variability in the populations we study. Consequently ...


Neurophysiology of Ganglia of Auerbach's Plexus Department of

the basis of both function and morphology, to be a simple integrative nervous system of vertebrate animals. ... of the constituent neurons are generally the same for ..... 1973b; Wood and Mayer, 1974). Single-spike units have noteworthy pharmacological properties. Their rate of discharge is increased by exogenous acetyl-.