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Observing the Moon: The Modern Astronomer's Guide, Second Edition

Even before the ancient Greeks invented optical lenses, humans peered into the heav- ens with wonder. Notable figures such as. Galileo and Isaac Newton are among the more famous astronomers who have helped humanity understand the solar system and our place within it. The study of the Moon has enhanced our ...

pdf

Theory of Energy-Balance Climate Models

GERALD R. NORTH! Mational Center for Atmospheric Research, * Boulder, Colo. 80303. (Manuscript received 12 May 1975, in revised form 2 July 1975) ... A class of mean annual, zonally averaged energy-balance climate models of the Budyko- Sellers type are .... The satellite observations of solar heat absorbed by.

1520-0469(1975)032<2033:TOEBCM>2.0.CO;2

Overview of The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate: A

Peter, Foukal, Gerald North, Tom Wigley, A Stellar View on Solar Variations and Climate ... Observations of the Sun's variable outputs ... Evidence of solar influences in the troposphere and stratosphere. How the climate system works and how it might respond to solar influences. Indications of influence based on ...

ssb_082744.pdf

North paper

Nov 3, 1975 ... Theory of Energy-Balance Climate Models. GERALD R. NORTH! ... A class of mean annual, zonally averaged energy-balance climate models of the Budyko- Sellers type are studied by a spectral (expansion in ..... The satellite observations of solar heat absorbed by the earth-atmosphere system are shown ...

north1975.pdf

Measuring Double Stars with a Micrometer and Digital Image

Couteau, Paul, Observing Visual Double Stars, ISBN 0-262-03077-2, The MIT Press, Cambridge,. MA. Dobbins, T. A., D.C. Parker, and C.F. Capen, (1981), Introduction to Observing and. Photographing the Solar System , Willmann-Bell, 1988, Chapter 15, 193 - 201. Gerald North, Advanced Amateur Astronomy ( Edinburgh ...

TDLdoubles.pdf

SAS Library

Foundations of Mathematics/The Real Number System & Algebra. H Behnke ... Harold Hill. 16 A Workbook For Astronomy. Jerry Waxman. 17 Advanced Amateur Astronomy. Gerald North. 18 Advanced Amateur Astronomy. Gerald North. 19 .... 81 Introduction to Observing and Photographing the Solar System. Thomas A ...

Library.pdf

Detection of the Climate Response to the Solar Cycle

Sep 15, 1996 ... JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES. Detection of the Climate Response to the Solar Cycle. MARK J. STEVENS AND GERALD R. NORTH. Climate System Research Program, Department of Meteorology, Texas A & M University, College Station. Texas. (Manuscript received 27 November 1995, ...

DetectionSolar.pdf

Solar variability does not explain late-20th-century warming

at odds with observations and theory. They argue that near-surface tempera- tures are strongly influenced by ... the 20th century by Gerald North and his collaborators found a temperature cycle with an amplitude of no ... climate system as a whole, particularly the ocean, has warmed along with the atmosphere; 5 the energy ...

Solar variability in late 20th century.pdf

Energy Balance Climate Models

GERALD R. NORTH •. Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771. ROBERT F. CAHALAN 2 AND JAMES A. COAKLEY, JR. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80307. An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models ...

North1981-energy_balance_climate_models.pdf

Long-Term Monitoring oT uionai Laimaze Forcings and Feedbacks

Orbit and Sampling Requirements: TRMM Experience Gerald North ...........54. 12. Satellite .... Measurements of changes in solar irradiance, which could be done from another small satellite, are also required. ..... planned Earth Observing System (EOS), which is the centerpiece of NASA's planned Mission to Planet. Earth ...

19940017166.pdf

Observational determination of albedo decrease caused by

Mar 4, 2014 ... Edited by Gerald R. North, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, and accepted by the Editorial Board January 6, 2014 (received for review. September 30, 2013) ... sea ice observations inferred from passive microwave satellite .... term increase in solar energy into the Arctic using the observed.

bb2cf136251961dced3c4678fb341132152e.pdf

Comparison of Statistically Optimal Approaches to Detecting

GERALD R. NORTH. Climate System Research Program, College of Geosciences and Maritime Studies, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas ..... n·p. 2 / sk k k 1. Hasselmann's first optimization approach has been ap- plied to sea surface temperature observations by Han- noschöck and Frankignoul (1985). Santer ...

0912f5109065faac58000000.pdf

Limits on climate sensitivity derived from recent satellite and surface

observations. Petr Chylek,1 Ulrike Lohmann,2 Manvendra Dubey,3 Michael Mishchenko,4 Ralph Kahn,5 and Atsumu Ohmura2. Received 2 April 2007; revised 21 July ..... T2 1 À N ð. Þ. Dt. Dt. 1 À a ð. Þ2 1 À g ð. Þw À 4a 1 À w ð. Þ. [. ] ð11Þ where So is the solar constant, T is the average atmospheric transmission for solar ...

limits-on-climate-sensitivity-d.pdf

Observational determination of albedo decrease caused by

Mar 4, 2014 ... Edited by Gerald R. North, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, and accepted by the Editorial Board January 6, 2014 (received for review. September 30 .... term increase in solar energy into the Arctic using the observed ... the clear- sky case, we observe a decrease in albedo from 0.39 to.

Pistone-Eisenman-Ramanathan-2014.pdf

Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century

Gerald E. Marsh. Argonne National Laboratory (Ret). 5433 East View Park. Chicago, IL 60615. E-mail: [email protected] Abstract. The role of the North ..... galactic cosmic rays—a term used to distinguish them from solar cosmic rays, which have much less energy. Long-term variations in the earth's magnetic field ...

Climate Change-NorthAtlanticOscillation.pdf

Solar System Escape Architecture for Revolutionary Science: Phase

The work described in this report is dedicated to Nathan Gerald Nosanov, born May 4, 2012, and. Owen Patrick ..... Heliopause investigation would give insight into the formation of the solar system, the role of the sun ... observations of our local cloud by SSEARS would provide a unique opportunity to derive the physical .

nosanov_2012_phi_ssears.pdf

Page 1 On the Relation Between Polar Continentality and Climate

GERALD R. NORTH. Climate System Research Program, Department of Meteorology,. Teacas A&M University, College Station, Teacas. The seasonal cycle of .... to the observations. The snow and sea ice in the model have no persistence - both melt immediately whenever the critical temperature is exceeded. As will be ...

Hyde_Kim_Crowley_1990.pdf

Filtering of Milankovitch Cycles by Earth's Geography

305 Arguello Drive, College Station, Texas 77840; and OClimate System Research. Program, .... The model is a linear version of the two- dimensional seasonal energy balance model described in detail by North et al. (1983a; cf. North et al., 1981). The model has been tuned to ... tribution function for the incoming solar ra-.

pdf?md5=9f8ecda84cbb38be053c78636de75493&pid=1-s2.0-003358949190064C-main.pdf

Amplifying the Pacific Climate Response to a Small 11-Year Solar

Amplifying the Pacific climate system response to a small 11 year solar cycle forcing. Gerald A. Meehl. NCAR. Julie Arblaster, Katja Matthes, Grant Branstator, .... the North Pacific and. North America depend on the size and location of the tropical Pacific precipitation and convective heating anomalies. (Meehl, Arblaster  ...

Solar.April_.2011 (1).pdf

Page 1 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 98, NO

increase of solar constant) for the linear models and for the nonlinear models that include a seasonal ... and North, 1991]. The models rely on simple formulas relating various energy fluxes to the surface temperature. Typically, the model surface temperature field T ... In view of the extensive observing program that has been.

graves_1993.pdf