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REVIEW The mammalian START domain protein family in lipid

The mammalian START domain protein family in lipid transport in health and disease. Barbara J Clark. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and the .... et al. 2004). The homeodomain–START domain structure has only been found in plant proteins. Coupling the START domain with other motifs is, however, ...


The Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR)

PIC preinitiation complex. PKA protein kinase A. PKC protein kinase C. Poly(A) polyadenylation site. RNAPII ribonucleic acid polymerase II. SF1 steroidogenic factor 1. StAR steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. START. StAR-related lipid transfer domain. TSPO. 18 kDa translocator protein. TSS transcription start site. UTR.


1 The mammalian START domain protein family in lipid transport in

Sep 30, 2011 ... The mammalian START domain protein family in lipid transport in health and disease. 1. 2. Barbara J. Clark. 3. 4 ... functions of many members of the START domain protein family are not well established. 8 ... Lipid transport proteins play an important role in non-vesicular trafficking of cholesterol,. 16.


Routes and Mechanisms of Post-Endosomal Cholesterol Trafficking

Feb 13, 2017 ... between the diphenylalanine in an acidic tract (FFAT)-like motif of START domain protein 3 (STARD3)/STARD3 N-terminal like (STARD3NL) ..... Cholesterol. Binding and Cholesterol Transport Proteins: Structure and Function in Health and Disease. Dordrecht the Netherlands: Springer; 2010. 52. Garbarino ...


solution structure, multiple timescale backbone dynamics and ligand

START domain proteins are conserved α/β helix-grip fold that play a role in the non-vesicular and intracellular transport of lipids and sterols. The mechanism and conformational changes permitting the entry of the ligand into their buried binding sites is not well understood. Moreover, their functions and the identification of ...


Structure of human Niemann–Pick C1 protein

Jul 19, 2016 ... disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 trans- membrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a “sterol-sensing domain” (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signal- ing, the structure and mechanism of ...


Intracellular Cholesterol Transport

START proteins. Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes, but its excess is toxic and contributes to several diseases, notably ..... sterol regulatory element binding protein. StAR steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. StarD. START domain containing. START. StAR-related lipid transfer. UPR.


STARD4 Membrane Interactions and Sterol Binding

Jul 13, 2015 ... amino acid sequence that folds into an α/β helix-grip structure. Members of this protein family bind a variety of ligands, including cholesterol, phospholipids, sphingolipids, and bile acids, with putative roles in nonvesicular lipid transport, metabolism, and cell signaling. Among the soluble START proteins, ...


3.3 Å structure of Niemann–Pick C1 protein reveals insights into the

Aug 22, 2017 ... Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) and NPC2 proteins are indispensable for the ... storage disease. Despite recent reports of the NPC1 structure depict- ing its overall architecture, the function of its C-terminal luminal domain (CTD) remains ... cholesterol transport | Niemann–Pick type C disease | cysteine-rich.


World Journal of Cardiology

May 26, 2015 ... subunits of protein kinase A (PKA-R1α), acyl CoA binding domains-1 and -3, ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 3A (ASTAD3A) and optic ...... tory protein (StAR) and atherogenesis. In: Clark BJ, Stocco DM. Cholesterol transporters of the START domain protein family in health and disease.


StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 5 binds primary bile acids

cholesterol from various intracellular organelles. In this respect, specialized nonvesicular lipid transporters of the superfamily of proteins with a steroidogenic acute regula- tory (StAR)-related lipid transfer (START) domain were shown to be involved in lipids and cholesterol trafficking between intracellular membranes ( 4 –7 ) ...


OSBP-related proteins: lipid sensors or transporters?

binding protein-related proteins, sterol sensor, vesicle transport. Protein families characterized by a ligand-binding domain homologous to that of oxysterol ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests a function for ORPs in the nonvesicular transport of sterols. .... minor changes in mRNA structure is found for several ORPs.


Cellular Cholesterol Homeostasis in Alzheimer's Disease

Jul 27, 2017 ... STARDs, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer domain proteins. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; aging; cholesterol metabolism; ApoE; lipid trafficking; ABCA1; Brain lipids; membrane contact ...... Structure and function of ER membrane contact sites with other organelles.


Role of STARD4 in sterol transport between the endocytic recycling

and function of these proteins in cellular sterol homeostasis are undetermined ( Mesmin and Maxfield, 2009; Iaea and Maxfield,. 2015). Among STPs, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. (StAR)–related lipid-transfer (START) domain (STARD) family is in- volved in several aspects of intracellular lipid trafficking (Soccio.


STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking

served START gene family, has been implicated in the non- vesicular intracellular transport of cholesterol. ... domain protein • hepatocellular carcinoma • intracellular cholesterol transport • endoplasmic reticulum ... Research Council for Health and Disease given to his PhD advisor Dr. Daniel. Wüstner (grant no. 23569).


Structural stability and functional remodeling of highdensity

Lipoproteins are protein–lipid nanoparticles that transport lipids in circulation and are central in atherosclerosis and ... inverse correlation between stability and functions of various HDLs in cholesterol transport suggests the functional role of ... lipoproteins are central to cardiovascular health and disease. [1,2]; this disease  ...


Cholesterol interaction with the related steroidogenic acute

cholesterol transport are linked to a variety of diseases ... protein; START, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein lipid-transfer domain. .... protein). (C) SELDI-TOF of STARD1-START and STARD3-START. J. Reitz et al. Cholesterol binding of START proteins. FEBS Journal 275 (2008) 1790–1802 ª 2008 The Authors Journal ...


StAR-related Lipid Transfer (START) Proteins: Mediators of

START domains are found in an extensive protein family, including. START domain only .... and transfected cells (31). MLN64 also functions in cholesterol mobilization from endo- somes via the Niemann-Pick C (NPC) pathway. In NPC disease low ... minireview was supported by National Institutes of Health MSTP Grants.


Characterization of the Functional Role of the Intracellular

Riegelhaupt, Joshua, "Characterization of the Functional Role of the Intracellular Cholesterol Transporter StARD4 in Knockout Mice, ... health. For example, increased levels of plasma LDL cholesterol are a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. Intracellular cholesterol levels ...... START domain containing . START.


The unsolved mystery of apoA-I recycling in adipocyte | SpringerLink

Feb 24, 2016 ... Since the main function of apoA-I is to mediate reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral tissues, the role of apoA-I internalization and re-secretion by ... StAR. steroidogenic acute regulatory. StARD3. START domain protein 3. START. StAR- related lipid transfer. β-ATPase. β subunit of ATP synthase ...